What are the typical developmental changes that occur during infancy?

Infancy is a period of rapid growth and development, characterized by significant changes in physical, cognitive, and social abilities. From birth to two years of age, infants undergo remarkable transformations that lay the foundation for future development. In this article, we will explore the typical developmental changes that occur during infancy, including physical milestones such as rolling over, crawling, and walking, as well as cognitive achievements like language acquisition and problem-solving skills. We will also discuss the importance of social interactions and relationships in shaping infant development. By understanding these changes, parents and caregivers can provide the necessary support and nurturing to help their little ones reach their full potential. So, let’s dive in and explore the exciting world of infant development!

Quick Answer:
During infancy, children experience rapid physical and cognitive development. Physically, infants grow at an accelerated rate, developing muscles, bones, and senses. Cognitively, infants develop the ability to perceive and understand their environment, form attachments to caregivers, and begin to communicate through gestures and babbling. They also develop the ability to focus their attention, remember and imitate actions, and learn to crawl and eventually walk. Infants also begin to develop social and emotional skills, such as the ability to express emotions and engage in social interactions. These developmental changes are crucial for infants to learn and adapt to their environment, form relationships, and prepare for future stages of development.

Physical Development

Gross Motor Skills

During infancy, gross motor skills are a crucial aspect of a child’s development. These skills involve the use of large muscle groups to perform various movements, such as crawling, standing, and walking.

  • Crawling: Crawling is one of the first gross motor skills that infants develop. Typically, it begins around 7-8 months of age when babies start to pull themselves across the floor using their arms and legs. This skill helps infants to explore their environment and learn how to navigate through space.
  • Standing: As infants grow stronger, they begin to develop the ability to pull themselves up to a standing position. This skill typically emerges around 9-10 months of age and is an important milestone in a child’s development. Standing allows infants to see the world from a different perspective and helps them to develop their sense of balance and coordination.
  • Walking: Walking is the ultimate goal of gross motor skill development during infancy. Most infants begin to walk independently around 12-14 months of age, although this can vary depending on the child. Walking is a complex skill that involves the coordination of several different movements, including the use of the legs, feet, and balance. As infants learn to walk, they develop their sense of balance, coordination, and independence.

Fine Motor Skills

During infancy, fine motor skills refer to the ability to manipulate small objects with precision. This development is crucial for future tasks such as feeding, dressing, and playing with toys. The following are some of the typical milestones in the development of fine motor skills:

  • Grasping: Newborns have a reflexive grasp, but it develops into a more precise grasp as they grow older. By three months, infants can grasp small objects between their thumb and finger, and by six months, they can hold objects in a more mature way.
  • Reaching: Infants start reaching for objects at around two months old, and by six months, they can reach for objects with a closed fist. This skill develops as they learn to coordinate their movements and balance.
  • Holding objects: Infants start holding objects around three months old, and by six months, they can hold objects with both hands, transfer objects from one hand to the other, and even bring objects to their mouth.

It’s important to note that the development of fine motor skills can vary from child to child, and some may develop these skills more quickly or slowly than others. Additionally, providing opportunities for children to practice these skills through play and exploration can help promote their development.

Sensory Development

During infancy, sensory development plays a crucial role in shaping an infant’s overall growth and understanding of the world around them. Sensory development involves the brain’s ability to process and interpret information received through the senses, such as sight, hearing, taste, smell, and touch.


Infants’ vision is not fully developed at birth and continues to develop rapidly during the first year of life. Newborns have limited vision, with a visual range of about 20/200 and a narrow focus on objects within 8-10 inches from their face. As infants grow, their visual acuity improves, and they begin to perceive depth, recognize faces, and track moving objects.


Newborns have a well-developed sense of hearing, and their hearing is more sensitive than that of adults. Infants can hear a wide range of frequencies and can differentiate between sounds from different directions. The ability to perceive speech and language is also crucial during this stage, as it lays the foundation for language development.


Infants’ taste buds are relatively underdeveloped at birth, but they begin to develop gradually over time. By the age of 4-6 months, infants start to develop a more refined sense of taste and can distinguish between sweet, sour, salty, and bitter flavors. This helps them to develop preferences for certain foods and learn to eat solid foods.


Newborns have a keen sense of smell, but it gradually declines as they grow older. By the age of 6 months, infants can differentiate between various odors and start to show preferences for certain scents. This sense of smell plays a crucial role in their ability to identify and distinguish between different types of food.


Infants’ sense of touch is well-developed from birth, allowing them to perceive various textures and pressures. They can differentiate between different types of touch, such as soft or rough, and respond accordingly. This sense of touch also plays a crucial role in their emotional development, as it helps them to form attachments with caregivers and feel comforted by physical contact.

Cognitive Development

Key takeaway: During infancy, gross motor skills, fine motor skills, sensory development, cognitive development, language development, problem-solving skills, emotional and social development, self-awareness, nutritional and health development are all crucial aspects of an infant’s growth and development. It is important to note that the development of these skills can vary from child to child, and providing opportunities for children to practice these skills through play and exploration can help promote their development. Additionally, a balanced diet, consistent sleep patterns, and regular check-ups with a pediatrician can help promote overall health and wellness during infancy.


During infancy, an infant’s perception undergoes significant developmental changes. Perception refers to the ability to interpret and understand sensory information from the environment. It is an essential aspect of cognitive development, as it helps the infant make sense of the world around them.

Object Permanence

One of the most notable changes in perception during infancy is the development of object permanence. Object permanence is the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they are out of sight. This development occurs around 6-7 months of age, when infants begin to realize that objects do not disappear just because they cannot see them.

Cause and Effect

Another aspect of perception that develops during infancy is the understanding of cause and effect. Infants begin to understand that certain actions lead to specific outcomes. For example, an infant may learn that if they bang their toy on the floor, it will make a loud noise. This understanding helps infants predict what will happen in different situations and develop a sense of control over their environment.

Spatial Awareness

Spatial awareness is another aspect of perception that develops during infancy. Spatial awareness refers to the ability to understand the spatial relationships between objects. Infants begin to develop this skill around 9-10 months of age, when they start to look for hidden objects in different parts of the room. They also begin to understand that objects can be in different locations relative to each other.

Overall, the development of perception during infancy is crucial for an infant’s cognitive development. The ability to perceive and understand the world around them helps infants make sense of their environment and interact with it in meaningful ways.

Language Development


During the early months of life, infants begin to make vocalizations that are often described as babbling. This is the first stage of language development and is characterized by the production of random syllables and sounds. Babbling typically begins around 6-8 months of age and is an important step in the development of language skills.

First words

As infants continue to develop their language skills, they begin to acquire their first words. This typically occurs around 12-18 months of age, although the exact age can vary depending on the individual child. First words are often nouns, such as “mama” or “dada,” and are typically accompanied by gestures or actions that relate to the object being referred to.

Vocabulary growth

After the acquisition of first words, infants continue to rapidly expand their vocabulary. This period of rapid vocabulary growth is often referred to as the “vocabulary spurt” and typically occurs between 18-24 months of age. During this time, infants learn new words at an astonishing rate, often acquiring several new words each day. By the age of 2 years, most children have a vocabulary of several hundred words.

It is important to note that language development is highly individual and can vary greatly from child to child. Some children may acquire language more quickly than others, while others may take longer to reach certain milestones. Additionally, factors such as environment, exposure to language, and overall health can all play a role in language development.

Problem-solving skills

During infancy, problem-solving skills are one of the most important cognitive developments that take place. This development involves the ability to identify a problem, come up with possible solutions, and select the best solution to implement. Here are some of the key aspects of problem-solving skills during infancy:

  • Attempting to solve problems: Infants start to explore their environment and attempt to solve problems from a very early age. This can be as simple as figuring out how to reach a toy that is out of reach or as complex as figuring out how to crawl or walk.
  • Persistence: Infants who are developing good problem-solving skills will show persistence in their attempts to solve a problem. They will keep trying even if they do not immediately succeed.
  • Flexibility: Good problem-solvers are flexible in their thinking and are able to try different approaches to solving a problem. For example, if a baby is trying to reach a toy that is out of reach, they may first try to reach it with their hands, then try to crawl to it, and finally try to stand up to reach it.

Overall, problem-solving skills are a critical aspect of cognitive development during infancy. As infants continue to develop these skills, they will become better able to navigate their environment and solve problems on their own.

Emotional and Social Development


During infancy, attachment is a critical aspect of emotional and social development. It is the process by which an infant forms bonds with caregivers, such as parents or primary caregivers. These bonds are crucial for the infant’s emotional well-being and help them feel safe and secure in their environment.

Attachment is primarily developed through consistent and responsive caregiving. Caregivers who are attuned to the infant’s needs and provide comfort and support when needed help the infant feel secure and build trust. This sense of security helps the infant explore their environment and develop a sense of independence.

However, attachment can also be a source of stress for infants, particularly when they are separated from their caregivers. Separation anxiety is a normal part of attachment development and typically begins around 6-8 months of age. It is characterized by feelings of fear and anxiety when the infant is separated from their primary caregiver. This anxiety is a natural response to the infant’s developing understanding of object permanence, or the realization that objects continue to exist even when they are out of sight.

Overall, attachment plays a crucial role in the emotional and social development of infants. Caregivers can foster healthy attachment by being attuned to the infant’s needs, providing comfort and support, and encouraging exploration and independence.

Social Skills

During infancy, social skills develop rapidly. Newborns initially rely on primitive reflexes to interact with their environment, but as they grow, they begin to exhibit more intentional and complex social behaviors. Here are some typical social skills that develop during infancy:


Smiling is an early social skill that develops in infants. Newborns usually start to smile in response to stimuli such as being talked to, hearing familiar voices, or feeling comforted. Smiling is a crucial social signal that helps parents and caregivers understand an infant’s needs and build a bond with them. As infants grow, they begin to smile more frequently and in response to a wider range of stimuli, which indicates the development of social awareness and communication skills.

Mirroring Facial Expressions

Mirroring facial expressions is another important social skill that develops during infancy. This ability allows infants to recognize and respond to the emotions of others. Research has shown that infants as young as a few months old can mimic facial expressions, especially those of their primary caregivers. This skill is crucial for building emotional bonds and facilitating social interactions.

Responding to Emotions

Infants also develop the ability to recognize and respond to emotions during the first year of life. They begin to differentiate between different emotions, such as happiness, sadness, anger, and fear, and can respond appropriately to each emotion. For example, infants may cry when they are upset or show signs of distress when they are scared. This ability to recognize and respond to emotions is essential for social interaction and helps infants to develop emotional regulation skills.

Overall, social skills develop rapidly during infancy, and they play a crucial role in an infant’s emotional and cognitive development. Smiling, mirroring facial expressions, and responding to emotions are just a few examples of the many social skills that develop during this critical period.


Recognizing self in mirror

During infancy, a significant developmental milestone is the ability to recognize oneself in a mirror. This skill, known as mirror self-recognition, typically emerges between the ages of 18 and 24 months. Prior to this age, infants do not show a preference for their own reflection or demonstrate an understanding that the reflection is themselves.

Developing a sense of self

Alongside the ability to recognize oneself in a mirror, infants begin to develop a sense of self. This involves the formation of a mental representation of oneself as an individual separate from others. This self-concept is built through various experiences, such as being an object of attention, being given a name, and forming relationships with caregivers.

Showing autonomy

Self-awareness in infancy also involves the development of autonomy. This involves the emergence of individual preferences, desires, and intentions. Infants begin to demonstrate their autonomy through their ability to make choices, express their needs, and assert their independence. This development of autonomy is an important aspect of healthy emotional and social development during infancy.

Nutritional and Health Development

Growth and Development

During infancy, the body undergoes significant growth and development. Some of the most important physical milestones include weight gain, length, and head circumference.

  • Weight Gain: A healthy newborn should gain weight steadily, typically about 1-2 pounds per month during the first six months of life. This weight gain is an important indicator of proper nutrition and overall health. By the end of the first year, an infant should have doubled their birth weight.
  • Length and Head Circumference: Infants grow rapidly in length during the first six months, with most of this growth occurring in the first three months. During this period, an infant may grow as much as 10-12 inches. Head circumference also increases rapidly during the first six months, with most of the growth occurring between birth and three months.
  • Physical Milestones: Infants achieve various physical milestones during the first year of life. These milestones include lifting the head while on the stomach, rolling over, sitting up without support, crawling, and eventually walking. These physical achievements are crucial for an infant’s development and lay the foundation for future physical abilities.


During infancy, proper nutrition is essential for healthy growth and development. The following are some of the key aspects of nutrition during this stage:

  • Breastfeeding: Breastfeeding is the ideal way to provide the necessary nutrients for infants. It is a natural source of vitamins, minerals, proteins, and fats that help support the infant’s immune system, brain development, and overall growth. The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life, with the introduction of complementary foods thereafter.
  • Introduction of solid foods: Around six months of age, infants begin to develop the necessary digestive enzymes to break down solid foods. At this stage, it is crucial to introduce a variety of foods, including iron-rich foods, to support cognitive and physical development. However, it is essential to ensure that the baby is developmentally ready for solid foods and that the foods are properly prepared and age-appropriate.
  • Meeting nutritional needs: Infants have different nutritional requirements than adults and children. They require a higher percentage of calories from fat to support brain development, and their nutritional needs change rapidly during the first year of life. It is essential to consult with a pediatrician or a registered dietitian to ensure that the infant’s nutritional needs are being met through a balanced diet.

Health and Wellness

During infancy, sleep patterns and common illnesses are significant factors that can impact a child’s overall health and wellness. It is crucial to promote healthy habits during this stage to ensure proper physical and cognitive development.

Sleep patterns are essential for a child’s overall health and wellness. According to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, newborns need approximately 14-17 hours of sleep per day, with most of it occurring at night. By the age of six months, a baby’s sleep patterns begin to regularize, with most infants sleeping for around 12 hours at night and taking two naps during the day. Establishing a consistent bedtime routine and creating a calm and relaxing sleep environment can help promote healthy sleep patterns during infancy.

Common illnesses, such as colds and ear infections, are common during infancy. It is essential to take proper precautions to prevent the spread of illnesses, such as frequent hand washing and avoiding close contact with sick individuals. In addition, it is crucial to seek medical attention promptly if an infant displays signs of a serious illness, such as difficulty breathing or severe dehydration.

Promoting healthy habits during infancy is crucial for proper physical and cognitive development. This includes feeding the child a balanced diet of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, as well as encouraging physical activity, such as tummy time and supervised play. It is also essential to establish healthy routines, such as regular bedtimes and mealtimes, to promote healthy habits during this critical stage of development.


1. What are the typical developmental changes that occur during infancy?

During infancy, children experience a wide range of developmental changes, including physical, cognitive, and social-emotional growth. Physical development includes growth in height and weight, development of motor skills, and the emergence of primary teeth. Cognitive development involves the development of language, problem-solving skills, and the ability to understand and remember information. Social-emotional development involves the formation of attachment relationships, the development of self-awareness, and the emergence of emotions.

2. How quickly do infants develop?

Infants develop at different rates, and there is a wide range of what is considered normal. Some infants may reach certain milestones earlier or later than others. However, in general, most infants reach major developmental milestones, such as walking and talking, within a specific time frame. It is important to remember that every infant is unique and may develop at their own pace.

3. What are some common physical developmental milestones during infancy?

Some common physical developmental milestones during infancy include rolling over, sitting up, crawling, walking, and the emergence of primary teeth. These milestones can vary depending on the individual infant and can be influenced by factors such as genetics and nutrition.

4. How can I support my infant’s development?

There are many ways to support your infant’s development, including providing a loving and nurturing environment, reading to your child, singing to your child, and providing opportunities for exploration and play. It is also important to ensure that your child receives proper nutrition and healthcare, including regular check-ups with a pediatrician. Additionally, providing a safe and stimulating environment can help promote healthy development.

5. What should I do if I have concerns about my infant’s development?

If you have concerns about your infant’s development, it is important to speak with your child’s pediatrician. They can assess your child’s development and provide guidance on how to support your child’s growth and development. It is important to remember that every child is unique and may develop at their own pace. However, if you have concerns, it is important to seek professional guidance to ensure that your child is receiving the support they need to thrive.

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